extraction rate flour
The yield of flour obtained from wheat in the milling process. 100% extraction (or straight-run flour) is wholemeal flour containing all of the grain; lower extraction rates are the whiter flours from which progressively more of the bran and germ (and thus B vitamins and iron) have been removed, down to a figure of 72% extraction, which is normal white flour. ‘Patent’ flours are of lower extraction rate, 30–50%, and so comprise mostly the endosperm of the grain.
Wholemeal, composition/100 g: water 10.3 g, 1419 kJ (339 kcal), protein 13.7 g, fat 1.9 g (of which 23% saturated, 15% monounsaturated, 62% polyunsaturated), carbohydrate 72.6 g (0.4 g sugars), fibre 12.2g, ash 1.6g, Ca 34mg, Fe 3.9mg, Mg 138mg, P 346mg, K 405mg, Na 5mg, Zn 2.9mg, Cu 0.4mg, Mn 3.8mg, Se 70.7μg, 225μg carotenoids, E 0.8mg, K 1.9mg, B1 0.45mg, B2 0.22mg, niacin 6.4mg, B6 0.34mg, folate 44μg, pantothenate 1mg.
White, composition/100 g: water 11.9 g, 1524kJ (364kcal), protein 10.3 g, fat 1 g, carbohydrate 76.3 g (0.3 g sugars), fibre 2.7 g, ash 0.5 g, Ca 15mg, Fe 4.6mg, Mg 22mg, P 108mg, K 107mg, Na 2mg, Zn 0.7mg, Cu 0.1mg, Mn 0.7mg, Se 33.9μg, 18μg carotenoids, E 0.1mg, K 0.3mg, B1 0.79mg, B2 0.49mg, niacin 5.9mg, B6 0.04mg, folate 183μg (if enriched), pantothenate 0.4mg.