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Food chemistry

Carbohydrate
Lipids
Proteins
Enzymes
Vitamines
Water
Minerals
Color
Flavors
Food Additives
Inhibiting oxidation
Measuring antioxidant activity
Cardio vascular disease and nutritional phenolics
Antioxidants and antitumour properties
Predicting the bioavailability of antioxidants in food:the case of carotenoids
natural antioxidants
Sources of natural antioxidants
Sources of natural antioxidants: vegetables,fruits,herbs,spices and teas
The use of natural antioxidants in food products
Preparation of natural antioxidant
Regulation of antioxidants in food

water
 
Amino Acids
Peptides

Proteins
Enzyme Isolation and nomenclature
Enzyme Cofactors
 
Theory of Enzyme Catalysis
Kinetics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction

Enzymatic Analysis
Enzyme Utilization in the Food Industry

Lipids
Acylglycerols
Phospho- and Glycolipids
Lipoproteins

Diol Lipids, Higher Alcohols, Waxes and Cutin
Changes in Acyl Lipids of Food

Unsaponifiable Constituents
Carbohydrates
Oligosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Aroma Compounds
Aroma Analysis
Individual Aroma Compounds
Interactions of aroma compound with Other Food Constituents
Natural and Synthetic Flavorings
Relationships Between Structure and Odor
vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
Minerals
Food Additives
Food Contamination
Milk
Dairy Products
Aroma of Milk and Dairy Products
Eggs
Meat
Post Mortem Changes in Muscle
Kinds of Meat, Storage,Processing
Meat Products
Meat Analysis
 
Drinking Water, Mineral and Table Water
Spices, Salt and Vinegar

Legumes
Fish, Whales, Crustaceans, Mollusks
Edible Fats and Oils
Processing of Fats and Oils
Analysis of fats and oil
Cereals and Cereal Products
Cereals Milling
Baked Products
Vegetables
Vegetable Products
Fruits
Fruit Products
Sugars, Sugar Alcohols and Sugar Products
Honey and Artificial Honey
Beer

Wine
Spirits
Coffee and Coffee Substitutes
Tea and Tea-Like Products
Cocoa and Chocolate
 

 Enzymes

  Enzymes are biochemical catalysts used in converting processes from one substance to another. They are also involved in reducing the amount of time and energy required to complete a chemical process. Many aspects of the food industry use catalysts, including baking, brewing, dairy, and fruit juices, to make cheese, beer, and bread. Enzymes are biomolecules that increase the rates of chemical reactions. Almost all enzymes are proteins. In enzymatic reactions, the molecules at the beginning of the process are called substrates, and the enzyme converts them into different molecules, the products. Almost all processes in a biological cell need enzymes in order to occur at significant rates. Since enzymes are extremely selective for their substrates and speed up only a few reactions from among many possibilities, the set of enzymes made in a cell determines which metabolic pathways occur in that cell. Enzyme activity can be affected by other molecules. Inhibitors are molecules that decrease enzyme activity; activators are molecules that increase activity.

  Vitamins are nutrients required in small amounts for essential metabolic reactions in the body. These are broken down in nutrition as either water soluble (Vitamin C) or fat soluble (Vitamin E). An adequate supply of vitamins can prevent such diseases as beriberi, anemia, and scurvy while an overdose of vitamins can produce nausea and vomiting or even death. A vitamin is an organic compound required as a nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism. A compound is called a vitamin when it cannot be synthesized in sufficient quantities by an organism, and must be obtained from the diet. Thus, the term is conditional both on the circumstances and the particular organism. For example, ascorbic acid functions as vitamin C for some animals but not others, and vitamins D and K are required in the human diet only in certain circumstances.

   A major component of food is water, which can encompass anywhere from 50% in meat products to 95% in lettuce, cabbage, and tomato products. It is also an excellent place for bacterial growth and food spoilage if it is not properly processed. One way this is measured in food is by water activity which is very important in the shelf life of many foods during processing. One of the keys to food preservation in most instances is reduce the amount of water or alter the water's characteristics to enhance shelf-life. Such methods include dehydration, freezing, and refrigeration

  Minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen present in common organic molecules. Dietary minerals in foods are large and diverse with many required functioning while other trace elements can be hazardous if consumed in excessive amounts. Sometimes minerals are ingested as mineral dietary supplements, the most common being iodine in iodized salt.