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Food chemistry

Carbohydrate
Lipids
Proteins
Enzymes
Vitamines
Water
Minerals
Color
Flavors
Food Additives
Inhibiting oxidation
Measuring antioxidant activity
Cardio vascular disease and nutritional phenolics
Antioxidants and antitumour properties
Predicting the bioavailability of antioxidants in food:the case of carotenoids
natural antioxidants
Sources of natural antioxidants
Sources of natural antioxidants: vegetables,fruits,herbs,spices and teas
The use of natural antioxidants in food products
Preparation of natural antioxidant
Regulation of antioxidants in food

water
 
Amino Acids
Peptides

Proteins
Enzyme Isolation and nomenclature
Enzyme Cofactors
 
Theory of Enzyme Catalysis
Kinetics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reaction

Enzymatic Analysis
Enzyme Utilization in the Food Industry

Lipids
Acylglycerols
Phospho- and Glycolipids
Lipoproteins

Diol Lipids, Higher Alcohols, Waxes and Cutin
Changes in Acyl Lipids of Food

Unsaponifiable Constituents
Carbohydrates
Oligosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Aroma Compounds
Aroma Analysis
Individual Aroma Compounds
Interactions of aroma compound with Other Food Constituents
Natural and Synthetic Flavorings
Relationships Between Structure and Odor
vitamins
Water-Soluble Vitamins
Minerals
Food Additives
Food Contamination
Milk
Dairy Products
Aroma of Milk and Dairy Products
Eggs
Meat
Post Mortem Changes in Muscle
Kinds of Meat, Storage,Processing
Meat Products
Meat Analysis
 
Drinking Water, Mineral and Table Water
Spices, Salt and Vinegar

Legumes
Fish, Whales, Crustaceans, Mollusks
Edible Fats and Oils
Processing of Fats and Oils
Analysis of fats and oil
Cereals and Cereal Products
Cereals Milling
Baked Products
Vegetables
Vegetable Products
Fruits
Fruit Products
Sugars, Sugar Alcohols and Sugar Products
Honey and Artificial Honey
Beer

Wine
Spirits
Coffee and Coffee Substitutes
Tea and Tea-Like Products
Cocoa and Chocolate
 

  Lipids

 The term lipid comprises a diverse range of molecules and to some extent is a catch all for relatively water-insoluble or nonpolar compounds of biological origin, including waxes, fatty acids (including essential fatty acids), fatty-acid derived phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and terpenoids, such as retinoids and steroids. Some lipids are linear aliphatic molecules, while others have ring structures. Some are aromatic, while others are not. Some are flexible; while others are rigid.Most lipids have some polar character in addition to being largely nonpolar. Generally, the bulk of their structure is nonpolar or hydrophobic ("water-fearing"), meaning that it does not interact well with polar solvents like water. Another part of their structure is polar or hydrophilic ("water-loving") and will tend to associate with polar solvents like water. This makes them amphiphilic molecules (having both hydrophobic and hydrophilic portions). In the case of cholesterol, the polar group is a mere -OH (hydroxyl or alcohol).Lipids in food include the oils of such grains as soybean, from animal fats, and are parts of many foods such as milk, cheese, and meat. They also act as vitamin carriers as well.

  Proteins compose over 50% of the dry weight of an average living cell and are very complex macromolecules. They also play a fundamental role in the structure and function of cells. Comprised mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and some sulfur, they also may contain iron, copper, phosphorus, or zinc. Proteins are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues.

          Structure of proteins

  Most proteins fold into unique 3-dimensional structures. Mainly four different structure of protein they are

  1. Primary structure: the amino acid sequence
  2. Secondary structure: regularly repeating local structures stabilized by hydrogen bonds. The most common examples are the alpha helix and beta sheet. Because secondary structures are local, many regions of different secondary structure can be present in the same protein molecule.
  3. Tertiary structure: the overall shape of a single protein molecule, the spatial relationship of the secondary structures to one another. Tertiary structure is generally stabilized by nonlocal interactions, most commonly the formation of a hydrophobic core, but also through salt bridges, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds.
  4. Quaternary structure: the shape or structure that results from the interaction of more than one protein molecule, usually called protein subunits in this context, which function as part of the larger assembly or protein complex.