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Food Microbiology

Foodborne pathogens   
Protozoan
Mycotoxins
Vibrio
Staphylococcus aureus
Salmonella
Shigella
Escherichia coli
Clostridiumbotulinum and
Clostridium perfringens

Bacillus cereus
Water activity
Pasteurization
Sterilization
Microbiology of soft drinks and fruit juices
   Incidence of Foodborne              Disease
Epidemiology of food borne diseases
Microbial food safety risk assessment
 
  Foodborne Infections
Salmonella infections  
Campylobacter jejuni andrelated pathogens
Yersinia infections
Listeria monocytogenes infections
Clostridium perfringens
gastroenteritis

Vibrio infections
Escherichia coli infections
Infections with other bacteria
Infections with viruses and prions
Foodborne parasites
   Foodborne Intoxications
Clostridium botulinum
Staphylococcal intoxications
Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Prevention of Foodborne Disease Effects of food processing on disease agents
Food safety
              Toxicology
Principles of Toxicology
Determination of Toxicants in Foods
Biotransformation
Natural Toxins in Animal Foodstuffs
Natural Toxins in Plant Foodstuffs
Fungal Toxins Occurring in Foods
Toxic Food Contaminants from Industrial Wastes
Pesticide Residues in Foods
Food Additives
Toxicants Formed during Food Processing
 

  Clostridium botulinum produces extremely potent neurotoxins that result in the severe neuroparalytic disease, botulism. The enterotoxin produced by C. perfringens during sporulation of vegetative cells in the host intestine results in debilitating acute diarrhea and abdominal pain. Sales of refrigerated, processed foods of extended durability including sous-vide foods, chilled ready-to-eat meals, and cook-chill foods have increased over recent years. Anaerobic spore-formers have been identified as the primary microbiological concerns in these foods.

 B. cereus is a normal soil inhabitant and is frequently isolated from a variety of foods, including vegetables, dairy products and meat. It causes a vomiting or diarrhoea illness that is becoming increasingly important in the industrialized world. Some patients may experience both types of illness simultaneously. B. cereus group are able to grow at refrigeration temperatures. These variants raise concern about the safety of cooked, refrigerated foods with an extended shelf life. B. cereus spores adhere to many surfaces and survive normal washing and disinfection procedures. B. cereus foodborne illness is likely underreported because of its relatively mild symptoms, which are of short duration.