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Food Microbiology

Foodborne pathogens   
Protozoan
Mycotoxins
Vibrio
Staphylococcus aureus
Salmonella
Shigella
Escherichia coli
Clostridiumbotulinum and
Clostridium perfringens

Bacillus cereus
Water activity
Pasteurization
Sterilization
Microbiology of soft drinks and fruit juices
   Incidence of Foodborne              Disease
Epidemiology of food borne diseases
Microbial food safety risk assessment
 
  Foodborne Infections
Salmonella infections  
Campylobacter jejuni andrelated pathogens
Yersinia infections
Listeria monocytogenes infections
Clostridium perfringens
gastroenteritis

Vibrio infections
Escherichia coli infections
Infections with other bacteria
Infections with viruses and prions
Foodborne parasites
   Foodborne Intoxications
Clostridium botulinum
Staphylococcal intoxications
Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Prevention of Foodborne Disease Effects of food processing on disease agents
Food safety
              Toxicology
Principles of Toxicology
Determination of Toxicants in Foods
Biotransformation
Natural Toxins in Animal Foodstuffs
Natural Toxins in Plant Foodstuffs
Fungal Toxins Occurring in Foods
Toxic Food Contaminants from Industrial Wastes
Pesticide Residues in Foods
Food Additives
Toxicants Formed during Food Processing
 


 Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms which inhabit, create or contaminate food. Of major importance is the study of microorganisms causing food spoilage. However "good" bacteria such as probiotics are becoming increasingly important in food science. In addition, microorganisms are essential for the production of foods such as cheese, yoghurt, other fermented foods, bread, beer and wine.

  Food safety is a major focus of food microbiology. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food. However, microorganisms and their products can also be used to combat these pathogenic microbes. Probiotic bacteria, including those which produce bacteriocins can kill and inhibit pathogens. Alternatively, purified bacteriocins such as nisin can be added directly to food products. Finally, bacteriophage, viruses which only infect bacteria, can be used to kill bacterial pathogens. Thorough preparation of food, including proper cooking will eliminate most bacteria and viruses. However, toxins produced by contaminants may not be heat-labile, and some will not be eliminated by cooking.

  Fermentation is one way microorganisms can change a food. Yeast, especially S. cerevisiae, is used to leaven bread, brew beer and make wine. Certain bacteria, including lactic acid bacteria, are used to make yogurt, cheese, hot sauce, pickles.