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Food Microbiology

Foodborne pathogens   
Staphylococcus aureus
Escherichia coli
Clostridiumbotulinum and
Clostridium perfringens

Bacillus cereus
Water activity
Microbiology of soft drinks and fruit juices
   Incidence of Foodborne              Disease
Epidemiology of food borne diseases
Microbial food safety risk assessment
  Foodborne Infections
Salmonella infections  
Campylobacter jejuni andrelated pathogens
Yersinia infections
Listeria monocytogenes infections
Clostridium perfringens

Vibrio infections
Escherichia coli infections
Infections with other bacteria
Infections with viruses and prions
Foodborne parasites
   Foodborne Intoxications
Clostridium botulinum
Staphylococcal intoxications
Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Prevention of Foodborne Disease Effects of food processing on disease agents
Food safety
Principles of Toxicology
Determination of Toxicants in Foods
Natural Toxins in Animal Foodstuffs
Natural Toxins in Plant Foodstuffs
Fungal Toxins Occurring in Foods
Toxic Food Contaminants from Industrial Wastes
Pesticide Residues in Foods
Food Additives
Toxicants Formed during Food Processing


  Foodborne pathogens are the leading causes of illness and death in less developed countries killing approximately 1.8 million people annually. In developed countries foodborne pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of infectious gastrointestinal diseases each year, costing billions of dollars in medical care and lost productivity. New foodborne pathogens and foodborne diseases are likely to emerge driven by factors such as pathogen evolution, changes in agricultural and food manufacturing practices, and changes to the human host status. There are growing concerns that terrorists could use pathogens to contaminate food and water supplies in attempts to incapacitate thousands of people and disrupt economic growth.

  Protozoan parasites associated with food and water can cause illness in humans. Although parasites are more commonly found in developing countries, developed countries have also experienced several foodborne outbreaks. Contaminants may be inadvertently introduced to the foods by inadequate handling practices, either on the farm or during processing of foods. Protozoan parasites can be found worldwide, either infecting wild animals or in water and contaminating crops grown for human consumption. The disease can be much more severe and prolonged in immunocompromissed individuals.

  Molds produce mycotoxins, which are secondary metabolites that can cause acute or chronic diseases in humans when ingested from contaminated foods. Potential diseases include cancers and tumors in different organs (heart, liver, kidney, and nerves) gastrointestinal disturbances, alteration of the immune system, and reproductive problems. Species of Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, and Claviceps grow in agricultural commodities or foods and produce the mycotoxins such as aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, ergot alkaloids, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone and other minor mycotoxins such as cyclopiazonic acid and patulin. Mycotoxins occur mainly in cereal grains (barley, maize, rye, and wheat), coffee, dairy products, fruits, nuts and spices. Control of mycotoxins in foods has focused on minimizing mycotoxin production in the field, during storage or destruction once produced.

  Vibrio species are prevalent in marine environments and seven species can cause foodborne infections associated with seafood. Vibrio cholerae produce cholera toxin and are agents of cholera.