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Food Microbiology

Foodborne pathogens   
Protozoan
Mycotoxins
Vibrio
Staphylococcus aureus
Salmonella
Shigella
Escherichia coli
Clostridiumbotulinum and
Clostridium perfringens

Bacillus cereus
Water activity
Pasteurization
Sterilization
Microbiology of soft drinks and fruit juices
   Incidence of Foodborne              Disease
Epidemiology of food borne diseases
Microbial food safety risk assessment
 
  Foodborne Infections
Salmonella infections  
Campylobacter jejuni andrelated pathogens
Yersinia infections
Listeria monocytogenes infections
Clostridium perfringens
gastroenteritis

Vibrio infections
Escherichia coli infections
Infections with other bacteria
Infections with viruses and prions
Foodborne parasites
   Foodborne Intoxications
Clostridium botulinum
Staphylococcal intoxications
Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Prevention of Foodborne Disease Effects of food processing on disease agents
Food safety
              Toxicology
Principles of Toxicology
Determination of Toxicants in Foods
Biotransformation
Natural Toxins in Animal Foodstuffs
Natural Toxins in Plant Foodstuffs
Fungal Toxins Occurring in Foods
Toxic Food Contaminants from Industrial Wastes
Pesticide Residues in Foods
Food Additives
Toxicants Formed during Food Processing
 

  Pasteurization is the process of heating liquids for the purpose of destroying bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. The process was named after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur. Pasteurization is not intended to kill all pathogenic micro-organisms in the food or liquid. Instead, pasteurization aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease. Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it adversely affects the taste and quality of the product.

  There are two main types of pasteurization used today: High Temperature/Short Time (HTST) and Extended Shelf Life (ESL) treatment. Ultra-high temperature (UHT or ultra-heat treated) is also used for milk treatment. In the HTST process, milk is forced between metal plates or through pipes heated on the outside by hot water, and is heated to 71.7 °C (161 °F) for 15-20 seconds. UHT processing holds the milk at a temperature of 138 °C (250 °F) for a fraction of a second. ESL milk has a microbial filtration step and lower temperatures than HTST. Milk simply labeled "pasteurisation” is usually treated with the HTST method, whereas milk labeled "ultra-pasteurisation” or simply "UHT" has been treated with the UHT method.

      Products that can be pasteurized

  Almonds, Apple cider ,Beer ,Canned food ,Crabs Eggs, Honey , Juice, Maple Syrup, Milk, Palm wine, Soy sauce, Sports drinks, Vinegar, Water, Wine.

  Sterilization refers to any process that effectively kills or eliminates transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, and spore forms etc.) from a surface, equipment, foods, medications, or biological culture medium. The first application of sterilization was thorough cooking to effect the partial heat sterilization of foods and water. Cultures that practice heat sterilization of food and water have longer life expectancy and lower rates of disability. Canning of foods by heat sterilization was an extension of the same principle. Ingestion of contaminated food and water remains a leading cause of illness and death in the developing world, particularly for children.