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Food Microbiology

Foodborne pathogens   
Protozoan
Mycotoxins
Vibrio
Staphylococcus aureus
Salmonella
Shigella
Escherichia coli
Clostridiumbotulinum and
Clostridium perfringens

Bacillus cereus
Water activity
Pasteurization
Sterilization
Microbiology of soft drinks and fruit juices
   Incidence of Foodborne              Disease
Epidemiology of food borne diseases
Microbial food safety risk assessment
 
  Foodborne Infections
Salmonella infections  
Campylobacter jejuni andrelated pathogens
Yersinia infections
Listeria monocytogenes infections
Clostridium perfringens
gastroenteritis

Vibrio infections
Escherichia coli infections
Infections with other bacteria
Infections with viruses and prions
Foodborne parasites
   Foodborne Intoxications
Clostridium botulinum
Staphylococcal intoxications
Bacillus cereus gastroenteritis
Prevention of Foodborne Disease Effects of food processing on disease agents
Food safety
              Toxicology
Principles of Toxicology
Determination of Toxicants in Foods
Biotransformation
Natural Toxins in Animal Foodstuffs
Natural Toxins in Plant Foodstuffs
Fungal Toxins Occurring in Foods
Toxic Food Contaminants from Industrial Wastes
Pesticide Residues in Foods
Food Additives
Toxicants Formed during Food Processing
 

  Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bacterial foodborne disease worldwide. Symptoms include vomiting and diarrhea that occur shortly after ingestion of S. aureus-contaminated food. The symptoms arise from ingestion of preformed enterotoxin, which accounts for the short incubation time. Staphylococcal enterotoxins are superantigens and, as such, have adverse effects on the immune system. The enterotoxin genes are accessory genetic elements in S. aureus, meaning that not all strains of this organism are enterotoxin-producing. The enterotoxin genes are found on prophage, plasmids, and pathogenicity islands in different strains of S. aureus.

  Infections are commonly acquired by animal to human transmission though consumption of undercooked food products derived from livestock or domestic fowl.

  Shigella species are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and are Gram negative, non-motile rods. Symptoms include mild to severe diarrhea with or without blood, fever, tenesmus, and abdominal pain. Further complications of the disease may be seizures, toxic megacolon, reactive arthritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Transmission of the pathogen is by the fecal-oral route, commonly through food and water. The infectious dose ranges from 10-100 organisms.

  E. coli was considered a commensal of human and animal intestinal tracts with low virulence potential. It is now known that many strains of E. coli act as pathogens inducing serious gastrointestinal diseases and even death in humans.