the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for
distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of
design, evaluation, and production of packages.Packaging can be described as a
coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics,
sale, and end use.
- Physical protection - The objects
enclosed in the package may require protection from, among other things, shock, vibration,
compression, temperature, etc.
- Barrier protection - A barrier from oxygen, water vapor, dust, etc.,
is often required.
- Containment or agglomeration - Small
objects are typically grouped together in one package for reasons of
efficiency. For example, a single box of 1000 pens requires less physical
handling than 1000 single pens. Liquids, powders, and granules
- Information transmission - Packages
and labels communicate how to use, transport, recycle, or dispose of the package or product.
- Marketing - The packaging and labels can be used by marketers
to encourage potential buyers to purchase the product.
- Security - Packaging can play an
important role in reducing the security risks of
- Convenience - Packages can have features which add convenience in
distribution, handling, stacking, display, sale, opening, closing, use, and
Packaging may be looked at as several different types. For example a transport
package or distribution package is the package form used to ship,
store, and handle the product or inner packages. It is sometimes convenient to
categorize packages by layer or function: "primary",
- Primary packaging is the material that first
envelops the product and holds it. This usually is the smallest unit of
distribution or use and is the package which is in direct contact with the
- Secondary packaging is outside the primary
packaging – perhaps used to group primary packages together.
Tertiary packaging is used
for bulk handling, warehouse
storage and transport shipping.