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Food preservation

Drying
Smoking
Freezing
Vacuum packing
Salt
Sugar 
Pickling
Canning and Bottling
Jellying
Irradiation
Modified atmosphere

Controlled use of microorganism
High pressure food preservation
Fish preservation techniques
MIcrobial Safety in Food Preservation
 

  • Salt

  Salting or curing draws moisture from the meat through a process of osmosis. Meat is cured with salt or sugar, or a combination of the two. Nitrates and nitrites are also often used to cure meat.

  Sugar is used to preserve fruits, either in syrup with fruit such as apples, pears, peaches, plums or in crystallized form where the preserved material is cooked in sugar to the point of crystallization and the resultant product is then stored dry. This method is used for candied peel and ginger.

  Pickling is a method of preserving food in an edible anti-microbial liquid. Pickling can be broadly categorized as chemical pickling (for example, brining) and fermentation pickling (for example, making sauerkraut).

  In chemical pickling, the food is placed it in an edible liquid that inhibits or kills bacteria and other micro-organisms. Typical pickling agents include brine, vinegar, alcohol, and vegetable oil, especially olive oil but also many other oils. Many chemical pickling processes also involve heating or boiling so that the food being preserved becomes saturated with the pickling agent.In fermentation pickling, the food itself produces the preservation agent, typically by a process that produces lactic acid. Fermented pickles include sauerkraut,Some chemically pickled cucumbers are also fermented.In commercial pickles, a preservative like sodium benzoate or EDTA may also be added to enhance shelf life

  Canning involves cooking fruits or vegetables, sealing them in sterile cans or jars, and boiling the containers to kill or weaken any remaining bacteria as a form of pasteurization.