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IS/ISO 22000:2005

Safety and Hygiene





Prerequisite programs (PRPs)

Hazard Identification


Food Safety Risk Analysis


  • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
  • A systemwhich identifies, evaluates and controls hazards which are significant for food safety
  • Concept synonymous with food safety
  • Uses approach of controlling CPs in food handling
  • Addresses physical, chemical and biologicalhazards
  • Science based and systematic
  •  Food control based on prevention of problems
  • Applied throughout the food chain from primaryproduction to the final consumer

Hazard Analysis in HACCP

Hazard identification and determination of acceptance levels

  • Hazard assessment
  • Selection and assessment ofcontrol measures
  • Categorization of measures
    • Establishingthe HACCP plan
    • PRPs
    • Establish OPRPs
  • Verification planning


HACCP: Five preliminary steps & Seven principles

HACCP: Preliminary steps

    1. Assemble HACCP team
    2.  Describe product
    3.  Identify intended use
    4.  Construct flow diagram
    5.  On-site confirmation of flow diagram

Principle 1 : Hazard analysis

  • List allpotential hazards at each step
  • Identify significant hazards
  • Preventive measure for each hazards
  • Requires technical expertise & scientificguidelines
  • Knowledge of food science / HACCP
  • One control may control more than one hazardand one hazard may require more than one control
  • Risk and severity
  • Can be expressed qualitatively /quantitatively

Hazards will vary for same product, by different firms

  • Sourceof ingredients
  • Formulations
  • Processing equipment
  • Processing and preparation methods
  •  Duration of process
  • Storage conditions
  •  Experience / knowledge and attitude of personnel

Principle 2: Determine critical control points

  • CPP is defined as a step at which control can be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a food safety hazard or reduce it to acceptable levels
  • CP: any point where loss of control does not lead to an unacceptable health risk
  • Use ofdecision tree
  • CCPs should be identifiednumerically

Principle 3: Establish critical limits for each CCP

  •  Critical limit : criteria which separate acceptability from unacceptability
  • At eachCCP critical limits are established
  • Deviation indicates loss of control
  • Violationwarrants immediate corrective action
  • CLs can be qualitative/quantitative
  • Validation if possible
  • Sourcesof information
    • Published data /scientific literature
    • Expert advice /consultants / process engineers
    • Experimental data/ challenge tests
    • Mathematicalmodelling / computer simulation

Principle 4: Establish a monitoring system for each CCP

  • Conductinga planned sequence of observations or measurements of control parameters to assess whether a CCP is under control
  • Acts asan early warning system
  • Monitoringprocedure to detect loss of control at CCP
  • Preventiveaction to prevent violation
  • Designateauthority to evaluate monitoring data
  • Two types of monitoring procedures
    • online systems
    • offline systems
  • Calibrationof measuring instruments
  • Physical/chemicalmeasurements
    • pH/aw/time/temp

Monitoring activity should include:

      What    describe the critical limit
      How     Describe monitoring procedure
      Where Relevant step shown in flow diagram
      Who     Trained CCP monitor
      When   Continuous or scheduled

Principle 5: Establish corrective action

  • Anyaction to be taken when the result of monitoring at the CCP indicate a loss of control
  • Developspecific corrective action for each CCP
  • Correctiveaction should ensure control of CCP
  • Developproduct disposition procedures
  • Productrecall procedures
  • Documentationof results

Principle 6: Establish verification procedures

  • Verificationis proof of doing what the plan says to do
  • To checkthe effectivity of the plan
  • To confirm that system adheres to the plan
  • Each CCPand entire HACCP plan to be verified
  • Verification activity include
      • HACCPsystem
      • HACCP plan validation
      • Equipment calibration
      • Challenge tests
  • Re-verification
      • Change in product/ ingredient
      • When deviation occurs
      • Newly identified hazards
      • At pre-determined intervals
  • Validation
      • Is proof of doing the right thing
      • Review of HACCP audit reports
      • Review of hazard analysis
      • CCP determination
      • Review of deviation reports

Principle 7: Establish documentation & record keeping

  • Recordkeeping is essential in HACCP system
  • HACCPprocedures be documented
  • Provideevidence during audits
  • Fourtypes of records should be kept
    • Support documentation
    • Records generated by HACCP system
    • Records generated by HACCP system
    • Documentation of procedures
    • Records of employees training programme
  • Supportdocumentation
    • product description
    • Flow diagram
    • Hazard analysis
    • Identification of CCPs
    • Identification of critical limits
    • Documented deviation & correctiveaction
    • Verification procedures
    • Preventive measures for each hazard
  • Recordsgenerated by HACCP system
    • Monitoring records for all CCPs
    • Deviation and corrective action records
    • Verification / validation records
    • Calibration records
    • Supplier quality assurance records