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Food Spoilage

Fish spoilage mechanisms

water activity

 Food spoilage means the original nutritional value, texture, flavour of the food are damaged, the food become harmful to people and unsuitable to eat.
Microbial spoilage

There are three types of microorganisms that cause food spoilage -- yeasts, moulds and bacteria.

  1. Yeasts growth causes fermentation which is the result of yeast metabolism. There are two types of yeasts true yeast and false yeast. True yeast metabolizes sugar producing alcohol and carbon dioxide gas. This is known as fermentation. False yeast grows as a dry film on a food surface, such as on pickle brine. False yeast occurs in foods that have a high sugar or high acid environment.
  2. Moulds grow in filaments forming a tough mass which is visible as `mould growth'. Moulds form spores which, when dry, float through the air to find suitable conditions where they can start the growth cycle again.
  3. Bacteria are round, rod or spiral shaped microorganisms. Bacteria may grow under a wide variety of conditions. There are many types of bacteria that cause spoilage. They can be divided into: spore-forming and nonspore-forming. Bacteria generally prefer low acid foods like vegetables and meat.