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                  Nutrition

Carbohydrates 
Fat
Fiber
Protein
Minerals
Vitamin
Water
Other nutrients

Intestinal bacterial flora Balanced diet
Malnutrition
Food guide pyramid
Energy
Obesity and weight control
Pregnancy and lactation
Infancy (01 year of age)
Young children (16 years)
Adolescents (1020 years)
Ageing
Illness
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia
Vegetarianism and veganism
Diet selection
How to interpret food labels
Food allergy and food intolerance
Food toxicity
Avoiding food-borne illness
Exercise
Protein
Carbohydrate
Fat
Alcohol
Water
Dietary fibre
Beverages
Cholesterol
Vitamins
Minerals 

  Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharide, disaccharides, or polysaccharides by the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They are found in foods as rice, noodles and other grain-based products, potatoes, Monosaccharide contain 1 sugar unit, disaccharides contain 2, and polysaccharides contain 3 or more.The main fuel used by the body during exercise is carbohydrates, which is stored in muscle as glycogen- a form of sugar. During exercise, muscle glycogen reserves can be used up, especially when activities last longer than 90 min. Because the amount of glycogen stored in the body is limited, it is important for athletes to replace glycogen by consuming a diet high in carbohydrates. Meeting energy needs can help improve performance during the sport, as well as improve overall strength and endurance

  • Fat (Calories/gram: 9)

  Fats are composed of fatty acids (long carbon/hydrogen chains) bonded to a glycerol. Certain fatty acids are essential. Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fats have all of their carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of their carbon atoms double-bonded in place of a hydrogen atom. Unsaturated fats are generally healthier than saturated fat. Saturated fat is typically solid at room temperature (such as butter), while unsaturated fat is a liquid (such as olive oil). Unsaturated fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds).

    • Essential fatty acids

       Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed; however, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be consumed in the diet. An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids - omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids - has been discovered to be important for maintaining health.

  Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer that is indigestible because humans do not have enzymes to digest it. Whole grains, fruits (especially plums, prunes, and figs), and vegetables are rich in dietary fiber. It provides bulk to the intestinal contents and stimulates peristalsis (rhythmic muscular contractions passing along the digestive tract). Consequently, a lack of dietary fiber in the diet leads to constipation (failure to pass motions).