Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharide, disaccharides, or
polysaccharides by the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain. They are
found in foods as rice, noodles
and other grain-based products, potatoes, Monosaccharide contain 1 sugar unit,
disaccharides contain 2, and polysaccharides contain 3 or more.The main fuel used by the body during exercise is carbohydrates, which is
stored in muscle as glycogen- a form of sugar. During exercise, muscle glycogen
reserves can be used up, especially when activities last longer than 90 min.
Because the amount of glycogen stored in the body is limited, it is important
for athletes to replace glycogen by consuming a diet high in carbohydrates.
Meeting energy needs can help improve performance during the sport, as well as
improve overall strength and endurance
Fats are composed of fatty acids (long carbon/hydrogen chains)
bonded to a glycerol. Certain fatty acids are essential. Fats may be classified as
saturated or unsaturated. Saturated fats have all of their carbon atoms bonded
to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of their carbon atoms
double-bonded in place of a hydrogen atom. Unsaturated fats are generally
healthier than saturated fat. Saturated fat is typically solid at room
temperature (such as butter), while unsaturated
fat is a liquid (such as olive oil). Unsaturated
fats may be further classified as monounsaturated (one double-bond) or
polyunsaturated (many double-bonds).
Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning
the body can produce them as needed; however, at least two fatty acids are
essential and must be consumed in the diet. An appropriate balance of essential
fatty acids - omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids - has been discovered
to be important for maintaining health.
Dietary fiber consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer that is
indigestible because humans do not have enzymes to digest it. Whole grains,
fruits (especially plums, prunes,
and figs), and vegetables are rich in dietary
fiber. It provides bulk to the intestinal contents and stimulates peristalsis (rhythmic muscular contractions
passing along the digestive tract). Consequently, a lack of dietary fiber in
the diet leads to constipation (failure to