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Other nutrients

Intestinal bacterial flora Balanced diet
Food guide pyramid
Obesity and weight control
Pregnancy and lactation
Infancy (01 year of age)
Young children (16 years)
Adolescents (1020 years)
Anorexia nervosa and bulimia
Vegetarianism and veganism
Diet selection
How to interpret food labels
Food allergy and food intolerance
Food toxicity
Avoiding food-borne illness
Dietary fibre

  Protein is composed of amino acids that are the body's structural (muscles, skin, hair etc.) materials. The body requires amino acids to produce new body protein and to replace damaged proteins (maintenance) that are lost in the urine. In animals, amino acid requirements are classified in terms of essential (an animal cannot produce them) and non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen containing compounds) amino acids. Consuming a diet that contains adequate amounts of essential (but also non-essential) amino acids is particularly important for growing animals, which have a particularly high requirement. Dietary sources of protein include meats, tofu and other soy-products, eggs, grains, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese. Proteins can be converted into carbohydrates through a process called gluconeogenesis.

  Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen which are present in common organic molecules.

    •      Macro minerals


    A variety of elements are required to supportthe biochemical processes, many play a role as electrolytes or in a structural role. They are

  1. Calcium: - for muscle and digestive system health, builds bone, neutralizes acidity, clears toxins, helps blood stream
  2.  Chloride: - required component of body
  3. Magnesium: - required for processing ATP and related reactions (health, builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, and increases alkalinity)
  4. Phosphorus: - required component of bones and energy processing and many other functions (bone mineralization)
  5.  Potassium: - required electrolyte (heart and nerves health)
  6. Sodium:-electrolyte
  7. Sulfur: - for three essential amino acids and many proteins and cofactors (skin, hair, nails, liver, and pancreas health)
    • Trace minerals


  1. Cobalt :-required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes
  2. Copper:- required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase
  3. Chromium:- required for sugar metabolism
  4. Iodine:- required for the biosynthesis of thyroxin
  5. Iron :-required for many proteins and enzymes, notably hemoglobin
  6. Manganese:- processing of oxygen
  7. Molybdenum:- required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases
  8. Nickel:-present in urease
  9. Selenium:- required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins)
  10. Vanadium : - There is no established RDA for vanadium. No specific biochemical function has been identified for it in humans, although vanadium is found in lower organisms.
  11. Zinc: - required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase. Zinc is pervasive.

  Iodine is required in larger quantities than the other trace minerals in this list and is sometimes classified with the bulk minerals. Sodium is not generally found in dietary supplements, despite being needed in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food.