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Submited by: osama

citric acid

  Citric acid is a commercially valuable microbial product, widely used in food, pharmaceutical and beverage industries as an acidifying and flavour-enhancing agent. It is produced commercially by submerged fermentation of sucrose or molasses using Aspergillus niger.
Citric acid is used for a multitude of purposes around the world, most obviously as a food & drink additive (E330) for flavoring or as a preservative but also for purposes as diverse as soaps & detergents, hair dying, explosives, industrial pipe cleaning, photography and many more - even heroin users seek it out.
1.7 million metric tones of citric acid are produced worldwide per year, and most of that is made by Aspergillus niger. The ability of A. niger to make citric acid was originally identified in 1917 by James Currie and industrial level production began two years later by Pfizer.
Citric acid is ubiquitous in nature and exists as an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is solid at room temperature, melts at 153C and decomposed at a higher temperature .citric acid obtained through the microbial fermentation .It is responsible for the tart taste of various fruits e.g. lemons, limes, oranges, pineapples, pears and gooseberries.
Citric acid is one of the most important bulk-produced organic acids; It is non toxic and easily oxidized in the human body. Because of its high solubility and palatability; it can be used industrially for food and pharmaceuticals, the worldwide demand for citric acid is about 600000 tons per year

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